China emerged in June 2020 as the first major country to announce a return to economic growth since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The government reported 3.2% gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the second quarter and 4.9% GDP growth in the third quarter of 2020. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) projects China’s economy to grow by 1.9% in 2020. China is still grappling with the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, including sluggish domestic consumption, slow recovery in its top export markets, and reliance on government spending and exports to boost initial growth. China also is facing growing restrictions on its overseas commercial activities and access to foreign technology and pressures for firms to diversify China-based supply chains. Against this backdrop, China’s leadership is deliberating the country’s economic direction and national industrial plans for the next 5 to 15 years.